Enamel Hypoplasia in Children: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods


Enamel hypoplasia is a non-carious lesion that develops before teething, during tissue formation. This pathology is characterized by a change in the appearance of dental units: depigmented or white spots and grooves appear on them. Hypoplasia is a fairly common phenomenon associated with metabolic disorders at the stage of intrauterine development. The most severe form of the disease is aplasia – the complete or almost complete absence of tooth enamel. Such pathology is accompanied by an acute reaction to any irritant: cold air, food, or drinks.

Hypoplasia is marked by deficiency and impairment of enamel. Pathology manifests itself in both milk and permanent teeth. Due to enamel problems, patients with hypoplasia are at high risk of dental caries. And the dentin, pulp, nerves, and vessels located in the cavity of the tooth are also involved in the pathological processes. Therefore, the disease must be treated without fail.

There are such types of enamel hypoplasia:

  1. Systemic hypoplasia of tooth enamel on children's teeth is manifested by extensive damage to the bulk of the dentition. This type of disease is only congenital. It has several forms: spotty, and erosive. Furrowed and mixed.
  2. Local dental enamel hypoplasia is localized and damages no more than 2-3 milk or permanent teeth. This is expressed in the appearance of rounded spots, pits, and furrows of various shapes. This pathology is acquired and develops due to an infectious or traumatic injury to the oral cavity.
  3. The focal form differs in that it can simultaneously affect both milk and permanent teeth of different ages, while structural changes in all layers of the enamel develop on several teeth at once.

Today the violation of the integrity of the enamel is a fairly common disease. At the same time, the frequency of occurrence is constantly increasing. This is influenced by several reasons and factors.

Enamel Hypoplasia Causes

This pathology is congenital. Hypoplasia of the teeth occurs due to metabolic disorders in the body of the fetus at the stage of intrauterine development, as well as under the influence of negative external factors. Pediatric enamel hypoplasia causes could be:

  • rhesus conflict between mother and child;
  • infectious diseases, SARS, transferred by the mother during pregnancy;
  • toxicosis, gestosis, birth trauma, premature birth;
  • unbalanced nutrition of the mother, taking medications while carrying a child;
  • birth trauma;
  • anomalies in the development of the enamel of children's teeth often occur against the background of rickets, encephalopathy, and atopic dermatitis.

If the pregnancy proceeded without deviations, then the diseases that the child suffered directly in the first months after birth can also become the cause of the development of hypoplasia: violations of hormones and calcium metabolism, diseases of the stomach and intestines, and genetic diseases of the blood. Regardless of the reason that caused the hypoplasia teeth in children, it is important to cure it even at the stage of milk teeth, since the condition of the milk teeth directly affects the formation and health of the next dentition.

Hypoplasia can also affect permanent teeth: violations appear during the formation of the rudiments of permanent dental units. Dental hypoplasia causes in adolescents and adults:

  • injuries of the maxillofacial region;
  • endocrine diseases, anemia;
  • pathology of the digestive system, urinary or nervous system.

Also, the condition of the teeth is affected by a lack of vitamins and microelements, the use of tetracycline drugs, an excess of fluoride in drinking water, and other factors.

Symptoms of Hypoplasia in Children

Diagnosis of this disease is simple, as it has severe symptoms. You can independently suspect pediatric enamel hypoplasia by the following signs:

  • the appearance of small yellowish or milky white, chalky spots on the surface of the teeth;
  • the roughness of the enamel even after thorough cleaning;
  • a rapid change in tooth shade after contact with pigmented products (berries, chocolate, tea);
  • the appearance of chips, furrows, and stripes on the enamel.

At the same time, the child may complain of increased sensitivity of the teeth, pain when using hot, sweet, sour, or cold drinks and foods, solid foods, and discomfort when inhaling cool air through the mouth. When the first signs appear, it is important to contact a doctor in time, who will be able to assess the clinical enamel hypoplasia symptoms during the examination:

  • shortening of the root system of teeth;
  • channel expansion;
  • multiple symmetrical areas of damage;
  • pathological discoloration of the enamel.

Depending on the degree of damage, the dentist chooses a method of treatment depending on the manifestations of the disease.

Enamel Hypoplasia Treatment

It is important to know that dental hypoplasia is irreversible. Therefore, all therapeutic measures are aimed at protecting the altered areas of the dentition and restoring the enamel coating. Mild pathology does not need special treatment but requires only constant monitoring. If hypoplasia manifested itself only aesthetically, remineralization of the protective tooth layer is carried out. Saturation of dental tissues with minerals occurs through the application of special solutions with sodium and potassium in the composition. The frequency of procedures and the type of drug, the dentist selects individually. In addition, the doctor often prescribes the intake of vitamins and minerals by mouth as additional support for the body.

Whitening is also used after professional hygiene and remineralizing therapy. This method is effective if the defects are located in the surface layers of the enamel or if there is a slight clouding of the enamel layer. The most pronounced result gives chemical bleaching.

Filling as a method of hypoplasia teeth treatment is used for pronounced erosive depressions, as well as mixed forms of hypoplasia when the integrity of the dental units is compromised. Composite materials are used to restore teeth. In some cases, the vestibular surface is covered with veneers. This enamel hypoplasia treatment helps to give the teeth an aesthetic appearance and prevent their destruction. If there is severe damage to the enamel of milk or permanent teeth, the method of prosthetics is used. Crowns help maintain the health and aesthetics of dentition. The installation of crowns for hypoplasia in childhood contributes to the formation of the correct bite and the development of normal diction.

Prevention is always better than cure later. To prevent the disease, it is worth monitoring the diet, especially for women during pregnancy and children. Food should contain all the necessary vitamins and minerals. To timely carry out the prevention of dental diseases, and injuries of milk teeth in children. Lead a healthy lifestyle, as well as teach children to follow oral hygiene. An important factor in the prevention of hypoplasia is early diagnosis. Regular checkups with a pediatric dentist are recommended every year, starting at 12 months of age. Remember that hypoplasia causes not only aesthetic defects but can also provoke more serious pathologies of the teeth and jaw.