Most Common Types of Genetic Oral and Dental Abnormalities
Genetic dental abnormalities are mainly deviations from the norm caused by disturbances in the functioning of genes. These genetic teeth disorders can lead to various problems and dysfunctions in the oral tissues and dental and jaw systems. Sometimes they serve as indicators of more serious diseases and are of a genetic nature associated with defects in genes. Moreover, they can occur spontaneously as a result of changes in genetics.
It is recommended that people predisposed to hereditary dental diseases begin visiting the dentist from childhood. This will allow the dentist to identify problems at an early stage and carry out dental treatment, taking into account possible difficulties that may arise.
Types of Genetic Dental Abnormalities
Anything that differs from the standard norm in various aspects, including the size, position and color of the teeth, is considered a deviation. Typically, such anomalies significantly affect the shape of the face, bite, ability to speak and chew food. They can be the result of both congenital characteristics and arise during life.
There is a classification of genetic dental disorders, which includes anomalies not only of individual teeth, but also disorders in the structure of the dentition and jaws. Dentists focus on the most common types.
Pathology of Enamel and Dentin
These anomalies include local and generalized hypoplasia, hyperplasia, dentin deficiency and impaired amelogenesis. These deviations manifest themselves through the appearance of symmetrical spots, pits and grooves on the top of the teeth. These imperfections affect all teeth at the same time and can be combined with other anomalies. In addition, they can increase the sensitivity of teeth to temperature changes and mechanical and chemical irritants.
These anomalies include various types, including splintered teeth, which most often affect the central and lateral incisors. Also among them are Hutchinson's teeth and Fournier's teeth, characterized by a crown shape similar to a barrel, which is inherent in the upper central incisors. In addition, there are Pfluger teeth, which are distinguished by the predominance of the size of the neck over the size of the chewing surface of the first large molars, and other types of anomalies.
Such dental abnormalities include hyperdontia (excess teeth) and adentia (missing teeth). Hyperdontia is characterized by the presence of additional teeth that typically erupt in unusual locations (either oral or vestibular) and can cause deformation of adjacent, normally positioned teeth. Additional teeth are most often located in the upper jaw, have an atypical shape and non-standard sizes.
Such teeth are located far from their normal position. This may include teeth growing outside the gum line or in unusual directions. They can move deep into the oral cavity, forward or backward relative to the dentition, and also unfold along the vertical axis.
The color, shine, and transparency of the enamel refer to the optical characteristics of the tooth. Normally, teeth can have shades ranging from blue-white to yellow. In various pathological conditions, a possible change in the color of the teeth to pink, gray, brown, and even green. Pathological pigmentation of the teeth may have the appearance of individual spots or be diffuse.
Anomalies in tooth size include macrodentia (giant teeth) and microdentia (small teeth). Macrodentia is accompanied by an increase in the size of dental crowns compared to the norm. As a rule, with these abnormal teeth, the central upper incisors suffer. Giant teeth can lead to abnormalities in the position of other teeth, difficulty in their eruption, and crowding. Microdentia, on the contrary, is characterized by disproportionately small crowns. This is usually accompanied by large interdental spaces.
Determining the etiology of genetic mouth abnormalities may require consultation with various dental specialists. A detailed clinical examination is carried out (examination of the face and oral cavity, detailed study of anamnestic data). It is important to note that genetic dental anomalies can be unique to each person, so the choice of treatment is always selected individually.
Treatment of Genetic Dental Abnormalities
Such dental diseases are characterized by disruption of the normal shape and size of teeth. These hereditary dental problems can have different causes and can manifest themselves both in individual teeth and in the entire dentofacial complex. Several factors can lead to abnormal tooth shapes:
- internal (hereditary factors and endocrine disorders);
- external (prenatal, intranal and postnatal, general and local).
Genetic predisposition, of course, is one of the leading factors in the formation of certain dental abnormalities: if the child's parents had a malocclusion, then most likely the children will also inherit this feature. For this reason, dental anomalies often become one of the manifestations of congenital malformations and diseases inherited from parents.
Endocrine disorders also harm the formation of the child’s dental system: for example, delayed teething, changes in their shape and size, enamel hypoplasia, etc. are associated with hypothyroidism. The influence of negative environmental factors on a child can occur in the womb or during childbirth. Treatment for dental genetic disorders depends on the specific type of anomaly and its severity.
Anomalies in the structure of hard tissues. Treatment of amelogenesis includes taking microelements and multivitamins, calcium glycerophosphate, and local remineralizing therapy. The solution to the problem of dentinogenesis imperfecta can be achieved through prosthetics (crowns, veneers and dentures) or dental implantation.
Non-standard number of teeth. If the excess tooth does not affect neighboring teeth, it can be left and reshaped with permanent crowns. The same teeth that interfere with the normal structure of the dentition may require extraction. Anomalies in the position of the teeth, such as unevenness and crookedness, can be successfully corrected using a variety of orthodontic treatments, such as the use of removable and fixed dentures, braces, facial arches and other procedures. These techniques help straighten teeth and create an improved, healthier smile.
Color change. In all cases of tooth discoloration, it is necessary to establish the reasons for the change in enamel color and, if necessary, correct systemic disorders. As an additional treatment, professional oral hygiene and the use of various whitening methods are carried out. Form anomalies. Such deviations are the basis for prosthetics of defective teeth using crowns or veneers, or will require removal and subsequent replacement with prostheses. In addition, NYC dentists can restore teeth using various composite materials.
Incorrect size. Microdentia can be corrected in two ways: either by covering small teeth with crowns, or by removing them and then replacing them with dentures. To treat this anomaly, it is necessary to remove the giant teeth, restore the correct position of the surrounding teeth and close the defects with dentures or dental implants.
All hereditary dental problems require highly specialized, and in some cases long-term and multi-stage treatment. This includes therapeutic procedures, surgical procedures, orthodontic adjustments and orthopedic treatments. Specific methods will be determined by an experienced specialist based on the nature and complexity of the genetic oral abnormalities. This approach provides the best results for maintaining healthy and beautiful teeth in each specific case.
Article Approved by:
Reena Clarkson Orthodontist, DDS