Peri-implant Mucositis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment


Dental implants have become an integral part of modern dentistry, but they can provoke peri-implant mucositis, an inflammatory disease affecting the mucous membrane around implanted dentures. This pathological process can have serious consequences for the long-term success of implantation, so understanding its causes, symptoms and treatments is key to providing quality dental care.

Causes of Mucositis After Implantation of Teeth

The main factor leading to pathological changes in the area of the artificial root is insufficient care of implants, dentures and the oral cavity, as well as ignoring regular examinations and precautionary measures. The accumulation of microorganisms in the implant area initiates inflammatory processes. In this area, the release of biologically active substances that stimulate bone resorption increases.

In addition, several additional aspects may increase the likelihood of pathological processes around this area: The incompetence of the implant surgeon in the selection, installation or placement of implants can have a serious impact on the final result of treatment.

Having a chronic disease such as diabetes or a weakened immune system can reduce the body's ability to fight infections. This provokes a risk of inflammation in the implantation area.

Poor oral hygiene, improper brushing, and poor quality toothbrushes or floss can all contribute to the formation of biofilm and make it difficult to keep the area around your implants clean.

Smoking is also one of the negative causes of mucositis that affects the general condition of the teeth and oral cavity. It slows down blood circulation and reduces the level of oxygen in the blood, which negatively affects the healing process of wounds.

The lack of a clear orthopedic rehabilitation plan can lead to incompatibility between implantation and future prostheses, which can be a source of discomfort for the patient.

Using cheap or uncertified materials to make implants can lead to premature wear, corrosion, or even allergic reactions in the patient.

All of these factors highlight the importance of a systematic approach to implant care, including regular visits to the dentist, adherence to hygiene recommendations, and caring for overall health.

Symptoms of Peri-implant Mucositis

Mucositis symptoms bear a resemblance to those of periodontitis, as both entail an inflammatory response to bacterial irritants. However, treating mucositis is an extended process, and predicting the outcome can pose a challenge. Manifestations of this pathology may range in intensity, presenting discomfort and alterations around the tooth.

Although symptoms may differ from patient to patient, some common indicators include:

  • Gingival bleeding;
  • Swelling of the gums around the implant;
  • Redness;
  • Jaw pain;
  • Bad taste and breath in the mouth;
  • Discharge of pus from the gums;
  • A feeling of implant mobility;
  • Implant loss.

If any of these signs appear, it is recommended to contact your dentist for a medical check-up and a treatment plan. Timely detection and appropriate treatment of pathology helps prevent the development of more serious complications and maintain implant health.

Peri-implant Mucositis Treatment

Violation of the instructions for mucositis oral treatment can become a trigger for the infectious process in the surrounding area. This can lead to significant bone loss. The occurrence of peri-implantitis, a complex inflammatory condition, plays a key role in the occurrence of defects in titanium rods. In later stages of this disease, the implant becomes unstable and may become loose, eventually leading to eventual failure due to bone resorption.

It is important to note that effective mucositis treatment is only possible while maintaining immobility of the dental implant. If the artificial root becomes damaged or becomes loose, removal rather than treatment is recommended. It is also necessary to evaluate the presence of increased load during chewing on the implant. If this factor is identified, measures should be taken to reduce the load. If there is a purulent abscess in the area of the artificial root, the necessary measures are antibacterial therapy and opening of the abscess.

If mucositis is diagnosed, treatment is usually conservative using minimally invasive methods for treating implants and gum pockets. Hardware techniques reduce the concentration of bacterial pathogens of peri-implantitis and stimulate local immunity.

Dentists use several treatment and prevention methods:

  • Professional oral cleaning. To prevent the spread of mucositis, it is necessary to remove accumulated plaque systematically. Cleaning is necessary both for the implants themselves and for any other structures.
  • Fluoridation of teeth. Applying a protective fluoride varnish or gel after professional cleaning can help teeth recover.
  • Antibacterial treatment. The healthcare provider recommends antiseptics and tailors a specific antibiotic regimen based on the sensitivity of the microbial flora.
  • Medication therapy. Your dentist might prescribe anti-inflammatory medications to alleviate inflammation and manage pain. Additionally, antiseptic mouthwashes could be suggested for maintaining cleanliness and combating infection.
  • Surgery. In more challenging situations, surgical intervention may be required. This can involve the removal of inflamed tissue, cleaning the implant, and employing bone regeneration techniques if needed. Surgery might also be considered in instances of pustule or abscess formation.

Peri-implant mucositis is a reversible disease. With the correct treatment, all symptoms go away. Without treatment, complications may develop that can lead to implant loss. To prevent pathology, it is necessary to regulate the removal of bacterial plaque. After implantation, brush your teeth twice a day, and use medium-hard toothbrushes and irrigators with antiseptics. Do not use mouthwash without consulting your NYC dentist. Also, avoid crunchy foods, carbonated drinks, alcohol, and spicy, sour and hot foods. In addition, timely visits are necessary to monitor the condition of the implant and the gums around it.

Article Approved by:

Oleg Goncharov General Dentist, DDS